understanding my conceptual practice so far/ MA conclusions

How do all of these ideas underpin the conceptual nature of my practice? opposed to a direct evocation to form and texture, my current body of work ‘small worlds’ could be described as ambiguous, almost fictitious in its contrived representation of geological landforms. Rooted in glaze experimentation and manipulation my work is ingrained in material sensibility and utopic romanticisms; perhaps delusions of the ‘perfect’ glazed specimen. I see my work as a modern counterpoint to the scholar rocks discussed and featured above. Seen below the work is often displayed on ceramic tablets not to dissimilar to the scholar rocks themselves, a gestural tribute to the ancient art you could say. For myself the term natural is something that is masked in mysticism. The elicit nature of my work much like the term natural itself is shrouded in ambiguity to allow the audience to impose their own subjective feelings, sensibilities’ and ideas of what the work/composition might be.

Inspired by my own personal and generational nostalgia (90s/early 2000s) achieving the perfect colours and process itself is a rigorous battle to achieve material textures that represent my immaterial and material memories. These memories conjure themselves as animated representations of volcanos and meteorites from watching endless hours of childhood television. Juxtaposed, are sensuous experiences exploring my dads building sites and the objects that dominate that space. These objects are often mundane oddities; discarded bricks, scaffolding, roof tiles and bags of plaster. My work draws direct inspiration from these oddities and you will see that many of the objects and plinths displayed within my composition are manufactured from brick clay or imitations of particular building materials. As memory itself is a consistent recollection of past experiences, what we know of the past can never be true and thus like Chinese whispers these material representations become distorted in their configuration. Like many of the objects discussed throughout this paper the original idea or experience of an object through time has transformed and the memory of an original object is very different to the modern counterpart. Although incredibly complex to understand when dissecting the various elements of memory, we as beings through evaluation are able to understand a small glimpse of what makes us tick, why we make the aesthetic choices we do and understand that a lot of the choices we make are both innate, learnt and in response to our imagination and environment.

scholar rocks a model for the imagination

I would purpose to briefly discuss an obscure yet traditional Chinese practice called ‘Gongshi’ or ‘scholar rocks’. The mysticism that surrounds Gonghsi has underpinned my practice throughout the second half of this year.

Chinese Scholar rocks could be described as Geological wonders of the natural world in minuscule scale. Although I would argue man has been drawn to the procurement of rocks since we as beings have had the consciousness to do so, this particular ‘fashion’ was founded over 1000 years ago during the Song dynasty China, as an appreciation and treasuring of unusual natural form. It was a way of artists/scholars to obtain art in natures image and acquire a slice of the environments extended self-portrait in miniature. The rocks themselves were procured for a variety of different reasons and firstly ‘It was said that a garden could not be beautiful without such rare rocks, and that a studio lacked elegance without Gongshi (Kemin 2017)’. Gongshi would often resemble Mountainous landscapes, land forms, figures and worlds within worlds.

The scholar rocks themselves were presented upon carved wooden stands, you could purpose this as jubilant appropriation from wild landscape to tame enclosure. These rocks were often dictums of Chinese landscape painting, “The rocks were chosen for awkwardness (overhanging asymmetry), resonance (rings when struck), representation (resemblance to landscape or figure), wrinkling (heavy or subtle texture) and moistness (glossy and tactile surface)” (Mendelsohn 1996). Due to these favoured characteristics Over time particular aesthetics were supplementary to the image of the scholar rock’s, this then led to a sculptural intervention. The interventions were so subtle they were often indistinguishable from the rocks natural authenticity.

Over time, the rocks then began to be sculpted from clay and the art form manifested much like the Chinoiserie style; The original design or procurement is of a great contrast to the substitute or re-representation. In modern society The ready made assists the sculpturally inspired form to craft a postmodern juxtaposition between original and simulacrum simultaneously. It is often as previously discussed challenging to deduce natural from unnatural. (Mendelsohn 1996).


It is easy to see from the image featured above (Cave of the Heremit Fu-Sheng”, Ying stone) why the rocks themselves were sought after with great connoisseurship. Valued for there intrinsic physical and visual virtues it is here that western perceptions of abstraction intersect principles that the Chinese scholars prized. The rocks themselves stand president to the integrity to which abstract sculpture aspired to. Regardless of environmental situation the peculiarity, beauty and elegance of the scholar rocks simply lie in the subjective elucidations and assumptions of what these objects could be, through ambiguity they have an incredible amount of imaginative potential and allow a variety of interpretations.


‘Chinoiserie’ as a conceptual model to understand how situation, perception and interpretation can transform aestheticism within artistic tradition

‘Chinoiserie’ or east Asian imitation art arose during the later part of the 17th century and was popularised in 18th century Europe through Chinese import and trade via merchant ships and diplomatic envoys. The art form itself derives from orientalism or artefacts considered characteristic of east Asia; China for example. Chinoiserie style can be characterised by its exuberant ornamentation and attention to detail. The subject matter itself due to the time in which Chinoiserie style arose focused on colonial era Europeans and their lack of clear conceptualisation and thus interpretation of Chinese culture. Artists across Europe began crafting and creating art work and décor inspired by the artefacts imported into major European countries/cities; depending on your geographical position within Europe the style varied. This ismost likely due to the varying European styles, cultural interpretations and traditions at the time. Chinoiserie itself was often a hybrid between Asian imported artefact and existing European styles as the artists themselves had often never visited and experienced east Asia for themselves, their narrative interpretation of traditional Asian colloquial was often misinterpreted and became the art form of Chinoiserie that we know today, an Asian inspired art form but, a separate art form in its own right.

What I find particularly interesting with regards to the East Asian inspired art form is firstly the historical context and bridging relationship Chinoiserie had between the east and west during the 17th century and secondly its direct evocation from object orientated aesthetic experience rather than being directly influenced by environmental, spatial or cultural experience. What I mean when I refer to this is the artist’s interpretation of Asian culture is formulated not on a visited trip to china per say and thus not a reflection of every day Chinese culture but rather the art form is formulated from an aesthetic object oriented and verbal understanding through artefacts, word of mouth and situation. our memory and imagination as previously discussed are shaped by all the things that make us, us; subjectively and as a greater continental consciousness but, what becomes Peculiar and interesting is when the phenomenon of Chinoiserie is proliferated past European interpretation to a global phenomenon. Interpretations of interpreted Chinese culture became popular across japan, the south Americas and India; most likely due to colonialism and European trade. The fascination with Chinese culture itself arose from the mysticism that surrounded East Asia due to increased yet still restricted access to other side of the globe. This mysticism manifested into exoticism and thus became globally popular due to firstly generalised global popularity and secondly the confidentiality that surrounded east Asia. (Britannica 1998)


As discussed interaction with an object outside of its cultural sanctuary or in this circumstance an object/objects transported across the other side of the world has a drastic change on the context of said object/s, it is a very altered experience. If we are to take Marcel Duchamp’s urinal or Fountain (1917) for example and appropriate the context of the urinal from lavatory to white cube gallery format, the urinal itself is transformed from functional item to artwork and artwork to postmodern phenomenon. Fountain (1917) in its own right is posed as a historical singularity due to the conceptually challenging nature of the art work at the time. Fountain, as a significant postmodern artefact portrays the visceral extreme of the readymade. Remarkably Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain is one of, if the worlds most famous and revered pieces of conceptual ceramic art, which when we look at the breath of ceramic art historically this is particularly astonishing. Words play an imperative role when understanding and interpreting objects; for example, what makes marcel Duchamp’s urinal any less of a fountain if it fulfils comparable functions to a fountain? Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain not only says a lot about the context, situation and phenomena of art but also challenges that context and situation, it is peculiar how seemingly mundane oddities manifest, transform and dominate our world to become retrospective sensation’s. (Howarth 2000)

As beings we impose ourselves upon objects and objects impose themselves upon us. The narrative that is formed from our interaction with objects is thus a reflection of our self image, environment, sensuous understanding and imaginative interpretation. Societies across the world have varying external influences, belief’s, environments and thus varying sources of creativeness. Even within these societies’ subjectivity and personal preference takes an imperative role. Chinoiserie style amongst the different European countries is no exception when we begin to comprehend the varying external influences fuelling the stylised artists.


Below featured in the image is an antique Francis Morley Ironstone Chinoiserie, peacock plate manufactured in the 19th century, England. Although beautiful in its own right, what I find more specifically concerning and fascinating at this point in in time with regards to the memory and history of Chinoiserie style is in its its ability to be manufactured and reproduced on a monumental scale. Due to its large scale manufacturing rate and ability to be quickly created and shipped with greater ease using cheaper manufacturing materials the price of the objects dropped and therefore middle class people within Britain and across Europe were finally able to obtain a piece of the ‘upper class life’ you could purpose.



Moving forward to the 20th century we may now approach Chinoiserie style with a more comical attitude through declining popularity and what we as a generation may now associate to be ‘tacky’ and out of fashion perhaps. For myself and I am sure for many people of my generation the Chinoiserie style may more likely be associated with the décor of an elderly persons living room. I would purpose this is completely situational of the objects authenticity and environment. if The Francis Morley plate below was either hung from an elderly persons wall or displayed as some peculiar trophy object on a mantle piece or tucked away within a cabinet, then more than likely it would project a particular voice, that of an elderly person’s retirement flat. On the other hand, if the plate were displayed within a museum or apposing gallery context, our feelings may shift.


Susan Hillers the j street project (2002-5) and the memorial

When beginning to understand and rationalize grouped experiences the theorist Henri Lustiger-Thaler summarises perfectly. He begins to talk about the harrowing and tragic grouped experiences people begin to feel when visiting the holocaust memorial museums, the joint anguish the majority of us feel when visiting this location. I say majority because although most of us would feel a particular emotion, these experiences are completely subjective and also situational, thus is how understanding these collective experiences can become challenging. Thaler states “holocaust memorial museums are physical embodiments of memory in their representation of constituents who are devoted to collective remembrance.  they are institutions that have as their mission the authorship of collective memory, serving as conduits to a deeply tragic past” (Lustiger-Thaler 2008). Personally speaking, it is the understood subjective of the ‘survivor’ and the ‘lost’ that are central to the narrative of memory with regards to this circumstance. It is also interesting to consider The fundamental understanding of the geography of the senses within this situation. The central understanding is that the senses mediate space and in doing so donate to our sense of place – as framed by (Yi-Fu Tuan 1972).


With relevance to the holocaust museum the location and situation are crucial in understanding and sympathising as a collective remembrance; for example, the Auschwitz memorial museum. Because we understand the atrocities committed on this land, and the sheer loss of life that occurred, as a collective we can empathise. We empathise because as humans we understand the ‘feeling’ of loss and thus situate and familiarise with those who lost loved ones and their lives at Auschwitz, thus share a collective experience, a shared emotion or sensibility. Further, the spatiality or far-stretching, long dirt fields of Auschwitz surrounded by high barb wired walls also speaks to us; the enclosed location and total lack of vegetation echoes an ulterior message, that of the ‘lack’, thus loss of life. We associate the feeling of ‘loss’ with a material sensibility and understanding of place, this material sensibility crosses other feelings and contributes to a higher emotional and attuned understanding of the area and geography. More so for some cultural groups such as Jewish communities the memory and significance of Auschwitz is incredibly important in terms of collectiveness, heritage, memory, and understanding of the tribulations that have occurred in their people’s cultural past as a collective consciousness. You could say to some degree that Auschwitz as a phenomenon has a form of predominance, constituting to a wide network of negative sentimentality. This is where This sensory example, although an extreme scenario is notable for showing us the way we understand relations among the senses as a group and also as a subjective individual, how a geographical location can have both material and immaterial relationships with individuals and cultural groups, beyond and past Auschwitz informational content. Internationally significantly tragic Events such as Auschwitz are typically remembered in twofold, due to the media: as if one had first-hand been there, also where one first heard of the tragic story/news, often in many cases via the very media which soon occupies all memory of it. overlapped, the two become a complex entity which in turn, becomes part of the individual’s personal experience of the event. As we all to some degree feel the same or at the very least understand the tribulations experienced at Auschwitz we form part of the collective consciousness of a greater understanding, we become available as part of the wider spectrum of Auschwitz memories. It is also further interesting to question the idea of the ‘personal memory’ when talking about this topic, for many people the memory of Auschwitz is denoted as something ‘personal’, but for many individuals Auschwitz and the holocaust is an unexperienced memory, one where the physical tribulations finished before many of our times. Some may argue, and I would agree, the tribulations stretch further than something physical;


In Susan Hillers the j street project (Fig.2 above -2002-5) the artist filmed and photographed the 303 German roads, paths, and streets scattered across the country whose names still referred to and incorporated a former (Jude) Jewish presence. The 67-minute visual inventory was exhibited as a film consisting of a collection of still camera shots that documented daily life around the signs associated with the project. The soundtrack that accompanied the film featured sounds of the cityscape such as traffic, church bells, and general incidental background noise. Although Hillers approach to the project was neutral, progressively it became clear that the signs she was documenting became increasingly rich and full of Jewish memory and presence in locations, not just from the present but also from millennia past, the film is rich with historical meaning and denotes geography or sense of place to sensibility and further through semiology emotion. The overwhelming tension between past and present within the camera shots emphasises the sense of absence and traumatic loss. The place names operate as memorials of expurgation, what was and now is. As a collective, very similar to the experiences spoken about with regards to Auschwitz the project projects a historical consciousness which does not rely on the belief of the event, and as such side-steps history’s perceptual rewriting of itself under the guidance of that socio-political standpoint.  What is interesting to consider with regard to Hillers film is that without changing the works subject, the approach taken opens it up to be engaged and experienced by those who have suffered expurgation and catastrophe in other times and other places, thus having further collective but also subjective repercussions.


On the other hand, the theorist James Young and others have investigated the opposing nature of the traditional public memorial as suppressing collective memory rather than truly conserving it. ‘By assigning a fixed material form to memory – which is something essentially unstable- the memorial freezes meaning and relieves the public from the obligation to remember’ (Lanyon 2006). Although on the one hand, the Jewish street names are not out rightly monuments that have been reinstated they are never less intended to fulfil a memorial function. So per say these street signs do act as a vestige to our memories, they also allow a forgetting, a release from the guilt and weight of storing these tragic remembrances. Although I agree to some extent, on the other hand, I disagree. I believe that the physicality of a memorials function for a collective remembrance is imperative. Although to some degree you could argue it allows us to forget, I would purpose memorials act as a beacon; a place where people can collectively come together, remember and console as a group.


A memorial generates ambience and like Auschwitz acts as a timeless physical reminder of a specific part of history. The problem with remembering is that our experiences and memories are all fundamentally subjective. All our experiences of a specific moment although shared are completely different, thus without material memorials, a memory over time that is passed on from generation to generation becomes nothing more than a Chinese whisper that is open to change and interpretation, consequently over time memory through explanation is altered, exaggerated and mislead. As time goes on the personal impact historical tragic events has becomes less personal because the people who first hand experienced these events pass away and thus, as time goes on a personal event becomes a story, thus history. The J street project on the other hand, proposes an alternative to this dark thesis. The j street project provides a critically practical memorial that functions as a parallel of the issue raised. As a moving visual inventory, bringing together sites of memory Hiller creates a setting for a semiotic time-based conceptual ‘space’ where remembrance becomes possible, an archive of visual memory. The fundamental point is that whether our concern focuses upon the constructing or observing of images, representational or non-representational, we are consistently involved in aspects of relationships, where multifaceted concepts of order, form and structure emerge.

Olafur Eliasson – Riverbed

When attempting to understand material memory and how all of these ideas are somehow linked to some form of escape or ‘yearning to a preceding significant time’, I believe it is important to attempt to understand and define the idea of sensibility as a correspondent to the issues explored due to its importance in duality and ambiguity. Just as it is important to explore the memory of the past it is also important to define the feelings attributed. What is sensibility? And how does it condition our understanding of our material memories.

Sensibility is best defined under twofold that of ‘making sense’ and ‘the senses’, making sense refers to how we order and understand the world around us; where as ‘the senses’ refers to mans ability to be able to answer and value complex emotional or visual influences. Although different, both are grounded in the understanding that sensuous experience is an ‘understanding that is grounded in previous experience and expectation, each dependant on sensual and sensory experiences (Rodway 1994). For myself, sensibility is best understood in relation to our environment, Paul Rodway would describe this as a ‘sensuous geography’ of sorts. the senses mediate the apprehension of space and in so doing contribute to our sense of place” (Yi-Fu Tuan 1972) to Frame this idea, picture that of a large football stadium a building designed to be visually dramatic and captivating, to draw in large crowds and have a sense of grandeur. Within this stadium the spatiality of the environment would ultimately denote your senses to an awareness of where or what kind of place you are in or surrounded by. What becomes interesting is if your vision is impaired and on this particular day it heavily snowed, your focus and attention may be captivated elsewhere; you may perhaps be more captivated by the feel and texture of the snow rather than the dramatics of the stadium; thus, creating a dramatically different perceptual experience mediated by the senses, these feelings are therefore completely subjective to your sensibilities above and below the threshold of consciousness. We are all different and have different attuned levels of sensibilities, therefore our perception and material understanding are extremely complex and personal; but, broadly speaking to some extent we all share a grouped opinion of the same experiences. The majority of us, as we step into the millennium stadium will feel that sense of ‘grandeur’ taking in the atmosphere of our material surroundings.



Art in its nature, is an imperative component with regards to understanding memory image, from both the artist’s and the viewer’s perspective, it is influenced by environment, context and state of mind, but above all is both situational and personal, collective and subjective. But

what if the context of our environment is changed, crossed or to some degree purposely and deliberately manipulated; how does our mind and further our sensibilities register the space that surrounds us and importantly how does the juxtaposition between artificial and natural environments challenge us?  do we ground our understanding in past experience clutching at what we know rather registering what is in front of us through sensuous understanding? How do we register real from fake?

In Olafur Eliasson’s ‘Riverbed’ (seen above) The Danish/Icelandic artist blurs the lines between natural and man made. Eliasson has manifested a large grey rocky riverbed within the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Denmark. The white wall gallery space has been filled with 40 tonnes of native Icelandic granite rocks and stones with a river bed sitting at the centre trickling small amounts of water into small pools that are spread across the space. we as viewers are invited to interact, meander and navigate ourselves through and under archways. The art work questions both the meaning and understanding of the museum context, its complexities and the relationship between both building and participant. As you ramble and twist your way through the art you can hear the rocks crush beneath your feet, you lay your hands down on the damp rocks and pull yourself back up again; as you raise your body up through the archway you elevate yourself to the next room to only repeat the same set of events. We as a society tend to register physical and visual response in similar ways and further as children have all been receptive to the geographical motions that I have described at some point in our life, often memories we associate with early environmental exploration and discovery. What begins to become hard to comprehend is the space in which the environment has inhabited. Although we register this environment as contrived The walls are bare, there is no life and thus, there is no expected way to act with or within the constructs of the environment/space. Our mind finds it difficult to cross the wires you could say, it finds it hard to comprehend a new manufactured landscape quarantined within the confinements of a singular room it makes us feel weird and insecure, the low tight archways only contribute to this feeling creating a uneasy atmosphere. Although confusing to approach I purpose the art works purpose is not to make you feel uneasy but as a space it invites you as a viewer to project your own narrative to the landscape and sense of self and space to the environment drawing on your own experiences, imagination and constructs, forming your own sensory experiences, mythological readings and fundamentally contributing and taking what you want from the installation. What becomes interesting with regards to elisasson’s room is when the participator becomes the artist within the art work, the art work then transcends our reality into its own world; a world within a world you could purpose, the narrative is then redirecting from viewer and art work to the new art works relationship with the original installation. Children were innately seen manufacturing rock towers by the stream crafting their own personal engagement with the space in which they have began to dissect, the new artworks then begin to form their own narrative in response to their environments crafting their own causal relationships. Those of us who have been down to a river have more than likely seen these rock towers or seen them being composed so you could therefore purpose the manufacturing of rock towers as a coping mechanism to denote some sense of contrived material memory or understanding to this artificial landscape, it could also simply be children having fun, engaging in a sensuous exploration of a new found environment.

sentimentality, nostalgia and brexit


Sentimentality could be regarded as an emotionally led subjective feeling associated with past experiences. Sentimentality is a sensory trigger that brings about a series of feelings that you associate with a particular or set of moments. For example, if when you were young you had a particularly favourite meal and today you decided to repeat that recipe and the smell of that food brings forth some form of familiarity, then your memory may transport you back to that time when you were a child, therefore triggering various sentimental feelings. If you enjoyed this meal you would more so associate these feelings with pleasure or if you didn’t visa versa, this feeling may ultimately denote your senses to a greater sense of space giving you a much more rounded experience of your memories.  Marcel Proust in his “Remembrance of things past” defined a sequence of similar events. Proust recalls how the act of eating a French confection called a “madeleine” triggered a feeling of contentment, transporting him back to a time when his aunt used to feed him the confection. This sensorial experience for Proust also brings about a flashback into his past memories, memories surrounding himself and his aunt, denoting smell and taste to a greater sense of place and past environments, that of Sunday mornings at Combray”. Sentimentality in relation to material memory is essentially how the senses connect with past experiences in the present on an emotional level, how the ‘sensoriality’ or crossing of ones sensibilities trigger various perceptual experiences of material and immateriality within both a collective and subjective consciousness, I say collective as there are some perceptual experiences we all recognise and denote to similar or the same emotions because as beings we have all to some degree been raised in a similar way due to innate primal or cultural tendencies.


Juxtaposed, although nostalgia could be defined as a “sentimental longing” I would argue that it is slightly different. Nostalgia could be defined as a longing towards a romanticised past, an idyll or picturesque impression of time gone by. Nostalgia is a series of memories that aren’t per say a total recollection of the past but rather an integration and combination of various memories that in the process of recollection has meticulously filtered out all negative emotions. If we are to define nostalgia as a “sentimental longing” towards a romanticised past, then the conflicting nature of it becomes clearer. If no memory from the past is truly real and one can never return to the past with total recollection, then the past never truly existed, thus nostalgia is built on the falsity of our memories.


Nostalgia similarly to sentimentality does not follow a specific memory per say, but adheres to an emotional state, where it differs is that within the past this romanticised emotional state is enclosed, it longs to manifest and recreate an image of a specific time by replicating actions completed in the past era and by using symbolic representations of the past. Thus, idealized past emotions become symbiotically displaced onto objects, sounds, smells and tastes that were experienced concomitantly with that time and emotions. Below pictured and a perfect example of a current world issue that arose out of the falsity of nostalgia would be the hotly debated and indoctrinated “Brexit leave campaign” featuring former Mayor of London Boris Johnson. Brexit was from my understanding a campaign built on the basis and falsity of drastic immigration policies and a promised reimbursement of EU funding back to ‘the people’ and NHS. You could say that Nostalgia with regards to Brexit works well as a post-Madeleine model for understanding current affairs where the general public rejoice in their emotional state of a romanticised memory of a time where immigration was low and funding to the EU didn’t exist. Although, I could argue Brexit was a nostalgic induced series of occurrences I believe it is far deeper. The idea of ‘Brexit’ is validated firstly through the media which soon governs all memory of what happened and secondly on the idea of safety and retaliated anxiety, the idea that by making things the way they used to be everything will be better, you could say there’s something primal in the uncertainty that follows change. We as people tend to want to make ‘things the way they used to be’ because we simply already know what has happened, thus all possibility of failure or ‘failures’ are eradicated. So in a time when people feel uneasy with what’s happening within the world it is safer to reside in our nostalgia than rather move forward, even though inevitably we will always move forward in some shape or form like a child being pulled as it drags its feet. Where nostalgia fits into this as previously discussed is if the past is made up of an integration and combination of various memories with negative emotions filtered out then no memory of the past is completely true, in the past immigration probably still existed, money being sent to European countries probably still existed the only difference with regards to now is that the present reality, no matter how good, can never be as good as an ideal – which nostalgia has created, thus is why I believe the majority of British people wanted to make Britain “great” again and are now angry Britain is still Britain, once again.


Obviously this a personalised opinion of what has happened from the statistics that came out of the polls and does not adhere to everyone in Britain, yet I still believe this idea is applicable to many communities around the country, more so in the small village communities I myself come from, where rural authenticity remains intact and still. Although I do not necessarily agree with the Brexit leave campaign, I can empathetically understand from a jaded perspective. Brexit induced nostalgia for these smaller communities is expressed through cultural anxiety and uncertainty of the imaginary invasion of immigration to rural utopias, (of which I will touch on later) that of the ‘imagined British countryside; where the butchers have been standing since 1808. For many people within these spaces immigration is a threat to their utopic of rural peace and quiet, there illusory ‘perfect way of British life’. An immigrant is a stranger thus unknown and therefore a threat to rural utopia, because with the unknown comes uncertainty and with uncertainty, anxiety of change which is stirred up by the media and existing preconceptions and delusions. Thoughts within a community can become twisted and Chinese whispers amongst the collective begin, the village begins to differentiate ‘I’ with ‘them’ and the ‘akin’ with the ‘alien’ thus, those from a different place and culture become a hostile threat. ultimately what we deem to be true or false is subjective and how we react to the medias output also idiosyncratic. but I believe from a first hand experience living within a rural area that social anxiety amongst the masses often overshadows rational.




The underlying differences between sentimentality and nostalgia boil down to the fact that although nostalgia is influenced by forms of sentimentality it is not completely dictated by it. Sentimentality is an emotional sensorial response that is triggered by past experiences within the present, where as nostalgia on the other hand tends to be a cause of human dissatisfaction of the present reality, it is governed by the falsity of various memories and as a result an overview or reminiscence of a specific or you could say “better time” that has filtered out all negative emotion, thus is why people tend to become nostalgic about a specific era such as the ‘90s’.For example, in terms of post-Proustian theory you could say that sentimentality is the idea of Proust’s madeleine and the emotional triggers the French confection brings forth, where as nostalgia is the general overview and affiliation of Proust’s madeleine, how someone may remember studying the subject matter at school or university, thus remembering how much they miss school or university in the 00’s.

Imagination as a model for spatiality


Imagination, in essence, is what allows us as beings to explore thoughts that are not present in our immediate environment, to the senses and perhaps things that have never been real at all. It is what makes us as individuals adversely different from each other allowing us to transcend that of which goes past what is observable by the senses, to a world of our own thought and aspiration that is nested within the creative faculty of the mind, what is primarily imagined is generated from within.

Imagination works adversely to visual perception in that instead of using a perceptual process to generate memory, imagination uses imagery to form memory and surpass realism, sensibility, and spatiality. Although surpassing these elements imagination does inhibit them due to imposed constructs of our perceptual understandings; in essence what we learn, are taught and know from our perceptible reality is reflected in our thoughts, so although our memories are distorted within imagination our mind tends to reflect cultural, environmental and our aesthetic interests or quick triggered thoughts from visual stimuli; constructs of the past, present, and future reality are present yet there is a freedom of subjective alteration.

Imagination is a bridge between images and ideas and with regards to spatiality could be implied as space within the mind, thus heterotopian in those regards. Nostalgia and utopia are hence ‘imagined’ spaces in which we craft our own sensuous reality too. Ideas of grandeur, what once was and what could be are then thrown into the mix and ordered into the chaos that is our mental data bank. When we dissect these spaces as a cross-wired web of sensibility, memory, and perceptual influenced thoughts they don’t seem as peculiar as one might have first thought when comparing and contrasting them against one another, what we see and what we feel are connected therefore it is only rational to create an innate connection; what differentiates real from unreal is common sense and basic human initiative, what we fundamentally learn from others, trial, error and curiosity.